Pennsylvania licenses 50 out of 102 lower-income occupations (more than half of the occupations included in the study) . The state’s licensing laws are less burdensome than most other states. The state's licensing laws rank 50th in the nation. Pennsylvania licensed occupations includes occupations that are rarely licensed elsewhere. Few other states license Travel Agency (5 other), Upholsterer (9 other).
On average, Pennsylvania requires $116 in licensing fees, 120 days of education and about 1 exam.
Out of the 50 occupations that require an occupational license in Pennsylvania, a license for Preschool Teacher, Public School has the highest burden. A Preschool Teacher, Public School license requires $700 in fees, 2 exams, 3 years experience, and 4 years of education.
Out of the 50 occupations that require an occupational license in Pennsylvania, a license for Farm Labor Contractor has the lowest burden. A Farm Labor Contractor license requires $25 in fees, no exams, no experience, and no of education.
An occupational license in Pennsylvania costs the most for Preschool Teacher, Public School. A Preschool Teacher, Public School license requires $700 in fees, 2 exams, 3 years experience, and 4 years of education.
An occupational license for in Pennsylvania costs the least for Gaming Cage Worker, Gaming Dealer, Gaming Supervisor, Slot Supervisor where the license costs $0.
In Pennsylvania, an occupational license takes the most time (due to required education/experience) for Preschool Teacher, Public School. It takes 2555 days (7 years) total. A Preschool Teacher, Public School license requires $700 in fees, 2 exams, 3 years experience, and 4 years of education.
In Pennsylvania, an occupational license takes the least time due to required education/experience (0 days) for Crane Operator, Vegetation Pesticide Applicator, Bus Driver, City/Transit, Truck Driver, Tractor-Trailer, Truck Driver, Other, Travel Agency, Pest Control Applicator, Animal Breeder, Weigher, Gaming Cage Worker, Gaming Dealer, Gaming Supervisor, Slot Supervisor, Wildlife Control Operator, Milk Sampler, Upholsterer, Taxidermist, Earth Driller, Water Well, Carpenter/Cabinet Maker Contractor (Residential), Cement Finishing Contractor (Residential), Door Repair Contractor (Residential), Drywall Installation Contractor (Residential), Floor Sander Contractor (Residential), Glazier Contractor (Residential), HVAC Contractor (Residential), Insulation Contractor (Residential), Iron/Steel Contractor (Residential), Mason Contractor (Residential), Painting Contractor (Residential), Paving Contractor (Residential), Sheet Metal Contractor, HVAC (Residential), Sheet Metal Contractor, Other (Residential), Terrazzo Contractor (Residential), Landscape Contractor (Commercial), Landscape Contractor (Residential), Farm Labor Contractor.
In Pennsylvania, to obtain an occupational license there is at least one exam required for: Preschool Teacher, Public School, Athletic Trainer, Veterinary Technician, Barber, Cosmetologist, Massage Therapist, Makeup Artist, Skin Care Specialist, Manicurist, Auctioneer, School Bus Driver, Crane Operator, Vegetation Pesticide Applicator, Bus Driver, City/Transit, Truck Driver, Tractor-Trailer, Emergency Medical Technician, Truck Driver, Other, Pest Control Applicator, Wildlife Control Operator, Milk Sampler. School Bus Driver requires 6 exams.
Pennsylvania’s licensing laws for lower-income occupations are some of the least burdensome in the nation, ranking 50th out of all 50 states and D.C. The laws require, on average, $138 in fees, 117 days of education and experience, and around one exam. Licensing fewer of the occupations studied here than most states—51 of 102—Pennsylvania ranks as the 31st most broadly and onerously licensed state.
Pennsylvania frequently licenses occupations that are unlicensed by other states, such as upholsterers (licensed by nine other states), weighers (24 others), taxidermists (27 others) and auctioneers (29 others). Of those, auctioneers are particularly onerously licensed, facing $270 in fees, 140 days of education (20 credit hours) and one exam. Given that so many other states do not require licensure of auctioneers, these requirements are excessive.
Pennsylvania also imposes burdens on some occupations that appear disproportionate compared to those for other occupations that may present greater risks to the public. For example, it is considerably more difficult to become a barber or cosmetologist than it is to become an EMT. While barbers and cosmetologists must complete 292 days (1,250 hours) of education, EMTs need only complete 35 days (150 hours) of education. It should not require eight times more schooling to become a barber or cosmetologist than to become an emergency first responder. Pennsylvania could open up employment opportunities by reducing or repealing these and other illogical occupational licenses, or—if government regulation is necessary—by replacing them with less restrictive regulatory alternatives.
|Burden Rank||Occupation||Number of States that License||Fees||Education/Experience (Days)||Education||Experience||Exams||Minimum Grade||Minimum Age|
|1||Preschool Teacher, Public School||50||700||2555||4 years||3 years||2||0||18|
|2||Athletic Trainer||49||410||1461||3 clock hours & 4 years||None||1||0||20|
|3||Veterinary Technician||36||365||730||2 years||None||1||0||0|
|4||Barber||51||200||292||1250 clock hours||None||2||8||16|
|5||Cosmetologist||51||104||292||1250 clock hours||None||1||10||16|
|6||Massage Therapist||45||295||140||600 clock hours||None||1||12||0|
|7||Child Care Home, Family||44||59||140||600 clock hours||None||0||12||18|
|8||Makeup Artist||37||121||70||300 clock hours||None||1||10||16|
|9||Skin Care Specialist||51||103||70||300 clock hours||None||1||10||16|
|10||Manicurist||51||121||47||200 clock hours||None||1||10||16|
|11||Auctioneer||28||277||140||20 credit hours||None||1||0||0|
|12||School Bus Driver||51||37||3||20 clock hours||None||6||0||18|
|14||Vegetation Pesticide Applicator||51||155||0||None||None||4||0||18|
|15||Bus Driver, City/Transit||51||37||0||None||None||5||0||18|
|16||Truck Driver, Tractor-Trailer||51||32||0||None||None||5||0||18|
|17||Emergency Medical Technician||51||98||35||150 clock hours||None||2||0||16|
|18||Truck Driver, Other||51||32||0||None||None||4||0||18|
|20||Pest Control Applicator||51||135||0||None||None||2||0||18|
|23||Gaming Cage Worker||30||0||0||None||None||0||0||18|
|27||Wildlife Control Operator||23||75||0||None||None||1||0||0|
|30||Travel Guide||37||100||1||8 clock hours||None||0||0||0|
|32||Earth Driller, Water Well||51||88||0||None||None||0||0||0|
|33||Carpenter/Cabinet Maker Contractor (Residential)||30||50||0||None||None||0||0||0|
|33||Cement Finishing Contractor (Residential)||30||50||0||None||None||0||0||0|
|33||Door Repair Contractor (Residential)||29||50||0||None||None||0||0||0|
|33||Drywall Installation Contractor (Residential)||30||50||0||None||None||0||0||0|
|33||Floor Sander Contractor (Residential)||27||50||0||None||None||0||0||0|
|33||Glazier Contractor (Residential)||30||50||0||None||None||0||0||0|
|33||HVAC Contractor (Residential)||35||50||0||None||None||0||0||0|
|33||Insulation Contractor (Residential)||30||50||0||None||None||0||0||0|
|33||Iron/Steel Contractor (Residential)||30||50||0||None||None||0||0||0|
|33||Mason Contractor (Residential)||31||50||0||None||None||0||0||0|
|33||Painting Contractor (Residential)||27||50||0||None||None||0||0||0|
|33||Paving Contractor (Residential)||28||50||0||None||None||0||0||0|
|33||Sheet Metal Contractor, HVAC (Residential)||36||50||0||None||None||0||0||0|
|33||Sheet Metal Contractor, Other (Residential)||31||50||0||None||None||0||0||0|
|33||Terrazzo Contractor (Residential)||28||50||0||None||None||0||0||0|
|48||Landscape Contractor (Commercial)||47||40||0||None||None||0||0||0|
|48||Landscape Contractor (Residential)||48||40||0||None||None||0||0||0|
|50||Farm Labor Contractor||10||25||0||None||None||0||0||0|
The data and information here come from IJ’s License to Work report, released in November 2022.View Report