Maryland licenses 58 out of 102 lower-income occupations (more than half of the occupations included in the study) . The state’s licensing laws are more burdensome than most other states. The state's licensing laws rank 9th in the nation. Maryland licensed occupations includes occupations that are rarely licensed elsewhere. Few other states license Tree Trimmer (8 other), Packer (7 other), Animal Trainer (7 other).
On average, Maryland requires $295 in licensing fees, 532 days of education and about 1 exam. Fees for a license exceed $1000 for Midwife, Direct Entry.
Out of the 58 occupations that require an occupational license in Maryland, a license for Preschool Teacher, Public School has the highest burden. A Preschool Teacher, Public School license requires $517 in fees, 4 exams, 3 years experience, and 4 years of education.
Out of the 58 occupations that require an occupational license in Maryland, a license for Animal Trainer has the lowest burden. A Animal Trainer license requires $5 in fees, no exams, no experience, and no of education.
An occupational license in Maryland costs the most for Midwife, Direct Entry. A Midwife, Direct Entry license requires $2231 in fees, 1 exams, no experience, and 2 years of education.
An occupational license for in Maryland costs the least for Coach, Head (High School Sports), Crane Operator where the license costs $0.
In Maryland, an occupational license takes the most time (due to required education/experience) for Preschool Teacher, Public School. It takes 2555 days (7 years) total. A Preschool Teacher, Public School license requires $517 in fees, 4 exams, 3 years experience, and 4 years of education.
In Maryland, an occupational license takes the least time due to required education/experience (0 days) for Bus Driver, City/Transit, Truck Driver, Tractor-Trailer, Truck Driver, Other, Wildlife Control Operator, Security Alarm Installer, Crane Operator, Gaming Cage Worker, Gaming Dealer, Gaming Supervisor, Slot Supervisor, Bill Collection Agency, Fisher, Commercial, Taxidermist, Landscape Contractor (Commercial), Security Guard, Unarmed, Animal Breeder, Travel Guide, Packer, Farm Labor Contractor, Animal Trainer.
In Maryland, to obtain an occupational license there is at least one exam required for: Preschool Teacher, Public School, Earth Driller, Water Well, HVAC Contractor (Commercial), HVAC Contractor (Residential), Sheet Metal Contractor, HVAC (Commercial), Sheet Metal Contractor, HVAC (Residential), Athletic Trainer, Midwife, Direct Entry, Tree Trimmer, Veterinary Technician, Landscape Contractor (Residential), Carpenter/Cabinet Maker Contractor (Residential), Cement Finishing Contractor (Residential), Door Repair Contractor (Residential), Drywall Installation Contractor (Residential), Floor Sander Contractor (Residential), Glazier Contractor (Residential), Insulation Contractor (Residential), Iron/Steel Contractor (Residential), Mason Contractor (Residential), Painting Contractor (Residential), Paving Contractor (Residential), Sheet Metal Contractor, Other (Residential), Terrazzo Contractor (Residential), Massage Therapist, Cosmetologist, Vegetation Pesticide Applicator, Pest Control Applicator, Skin Care Specialist, Manicurist, Barber, School Bus Driver, Bus Driver, City/Transit, Truck Driver, Tractor-Trailer, Truck Driver, Other, Emergency Medical Technician, Pharmacy Technician, Wildlife Control Operator, Milk Sampler, Crane Operator, Taxidermist. School Bus Driver requires 6 exams.
Maryland’s licensing laws for lower-income occupations are the 11th most burdensome. On average, Maryland’s barriers to entry into these occupations are $288 in fees, 529 days lost to education and experience, and about one exam. Because it licenses slightly fewer occupations than similarly burdensome states—59 of the 102 studied here—Maryland ranks as the nation’s 20th most broadly and onerously licensed state.
Maryland licenses several occupations that are rarely licensed elsewhere. For example, few other states license packers (five), tree trimmers (six), animal trainers (eight), upholsterers (nine) or farm labor contractors (nine). Among those, tree trimmers face particularly steep burdens. To obtain a license, they must demonstrate two years of education and one year of experience (1,095 days total), pass an exam, and pay a $30 fee. With so few states licensing tree trimmers, it is questionable for Maryland to license them at all, let alone so onerously.
Maryland also imposes high education and experience requirements on some occupations that seem excessive compared to those for other occupations that may present greater risks to the public. For example, EMTs are deemed competent to work as first responders after only 165 hours (approximately 39 days) of education. Meanwhile, barbers must complete 1,200 hours (roughly 280 days) of education and cosmetologists 1,500 hours (roughly 350 days) before becoming licensed. To expand opportunity, Maryland should reduce, if not repeal, inconsistent or irrational burdens like these, or—if government regulation is necessary—replace them with less restrictive regulatory alternatives.
|Burden Rank||Occupation||Number of States that License||Fees||Education/Experience (Days)||Education||Experience||Exams||Minimum Grade||Minimum Age|
|1||Preschool Teacher, Public School||50||517||2555||4 years||3 years||4||0||0|
|2||Earth Driller, Water Well||51||525||2190||None||6 years||3||0||18|
|3||HVAC Contractor (Commercial)||37||405||2190||None||6 years||2||0||0|
|3||HVAC Contractor (Residential)||35||405||2190||None||6 years||2||0||0|
|5||Sheet Metal Contractor, HVAC (Commercial)||37||155||2190||None||6 years||2||0||0|
|5||Sheet Metal Contractor, HVAC (Residential)||36||155||2190||None||6 years||2||0||0|
|7||Athletic Trainer||49||741||1460||4 years||None||1||0||18|
|8||Midwife, Direct Entry||37||2231||730||2 years||None||1||12||21|
|9||Tree Trimmer||8||30||1095||2 years||1 year||1||0||18|
|10||Coach, Head (High School Sports)||47||0||735||30 clock hours||2 years||0||12||23|
|11||Veterinary Technician||36||410||730||2 years||None||2||0||18|
|12||Landscape Contractor (Residential)||48||533||730||None||2 years||1||0||18|
|13||Carpenter/Cabinet Maker Contractor (Residential)||30||433||730||None||2 years||1||0||18|
|13||Cement Finishing Contractor (Residential)||30||433||730||None||2 years||1||0||18|
|13||Door Repair Contractor (Residential)||29||433||730||None||2 years||1||0||18|
|13||Drywall Installation Contractor (Residential)||30||433||730||None||2 years||1||0||18|
|13||Floor Sander Contractor (Residential)||27||433||730||None||2 years||1||0||18|
|13||Glazier Contractor (Residential)||30||433||730||None||2 years||1||0||18|
|13||Insulation Contractor (Residential)||30||433||730||None||2 years||1||0||18|
|13||Iron/Steel Contractor (Residential)||30||433||730||None||2 years||1||0||18|
|13||Mason Contractor (Residential)||31||433||730||None||2 years||1||0||18|
|13||Painting Contractor (Residential)||27||433||730||None||2 years||1||0||18|
|13||Paving Contractor (Residential)||28||433||730||None||2 years||1||0||18|
|13||Sheet Metal Contractor, Other (Residential)||31||433||730||None||2 years||1||0||18|
|13||Terrazzo Contractor (Residential)||28||433||730||None||2 years||1||0||18|
|26||Massage Therapist||45||745||560||600 clock hours & 60 credit hours||None||2||0||18|
|27||Cosmetologist||51||104||350||1500 clock hours||None||2||9||17|
|28||Vegetation Pesticide Applicator||51||225||365||None||1 year||4||0||18|
|29||Pest Control Applicator||51||225||365||None||1 year||2||0||18|
|30||Skin Care Specialist||51||104||140||600 clock hours||None||2||9||17|
|31||Manicurist||51||104||58||250 clock hours||None||2||9||17|
|32||Barber||51||50||280||1200 clock hours||None||2||0||0|
|33||Taxi Driver/Chauffeur||13||53||182||None||6 months||0||0||18|
|34||School Bus Driver||51||140||3||17 clock hours||None||6||0||21|
|35||Bus Driver, City/Transit||51||140||0||None||None||5||0||18|
|35||Truck Driver, Tractor-Trailer||51||140||0||None||None||5||0||18|
|37||Truck Driver, Other||51||140||0||None||None||4||0||18|
|38||Emergency Medical Technician||51||85||39||165 clock hours||None||2||0||16|
|39||Pharmacy Technician||44||83||37||None||160 clock hours||1||0||17|
|40||Wildlife Control Operator||23||50||0||None||None||1||0||18|
|41||Security Alarm Installer||37||113||0||None||None||0||0||18|
|42||Child Care Home, Family||44||51||6||36 clock hours||None||0||0||18|
|43||Milk Sampler||43||50||1||None||1 day||2||0||0|
|45||Gaming Cage Worker||30||437||0||None||None||0||0||0|
|49||Bill Collection Agency||29||350||0||None||None||0||0||0|
|52||Landscape Contractor (Commercial)||47||100||0||None||None||0||0||0|
|53||Security Guard, Unarmed||34||66||0||None||None||0||0||0|
|57||Farm Labor Contractor||10||25||0||None||None||0||0||0|
The data and information here come from IJ’s License to Work report, released in November 2022.View Report